one of the most
beloved monarchs in history and namesake of the
Elizabethan Era, one of the most culturally
productive eras in English history
Chronology of Her
Elizabeth was born at Greenwich
Palace, on September 7, 1533, the only child of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. On
May 19, 1536, Henry had Anne executed for alleged
adultery and the marriage declared invalid. On
July 1, 1536, Elizabeth was declared illegitimate
by Parliament. She was raised by Henry's
subsequent wives -- Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves,
Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr. Taught by
famous scholars such as William Grindal and Roger
Ascham, she became proficient in five languages.
Henry died in 1547, and his son
became King Edward VI. His uncle, Edward Seymour,
became Protector of England, since Edward was
only nine years old at the time. Edward's younger
brother, Thomas Seymour, attempted to overthrow
Edward and kidnap the king. The plot failed, and
Thomas was executed. Because Thomas had made
overtures of marriage toward Elizabeth, she was
implicated in his plot. Although only fifteen at
the time, she was able to persuade interrogators
that she had had no knowledge of the plot.
Edward died in the summer of
1553, and Elizabeth's half-sister, Mary, became
Queen Mary I of England.
In March 1554, Sir Thomas Wyatt
staged an unsuccessful rebellion. Elizabeth was
imprisoned in the Tower of London for her alleged role in Wyatt's plot,
but was allowed back at court by 1555.
Chronology of Her
Elizabeth succeded to the
throne upon Mary's death, on November 17, 1558.
She was crowned on January 15, 1559.
1559, April 3--The
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis brought peace with
1559, May 8--The Acts of Supremacy and
Uniformity were passed, re-establishing the
Anglican Church in England.
1559, May 10--John Knox incited
the Scottish Lords of the Congregation to rise
against the regency of Mary Stuart, Queen of
Scots, mother. They seized Edinburgh, destroyed
religious houses, and subsequently approached
Elizabeth for aid in their cause.
1559, July 10--Mary, Queen of
Scots, declared herself Queen of England.
1559, October 21--Scottish Lords
deposed Mary of Guise for not preventing the
French fortifying Leith.
1559, December 18--Elizabeth
sent aid to the Scottish Lords by land and sea
1560, July 6--The
Treaty of Edinburgh made peace with Scotland and
annulled Mary's claim to the throne of England,
but Mary refused to ratify the treaty.
O'Neill's Rebellion in Ireland.
1561, August 19--Mary, Queen of Scots,
returned to Scotland.
signed the Treaty of Richmond with French
1562, May 26--Shane O'Neill led
a second rebellion in Ireland.
1562, September 22--Elizabeth
signed the Treaty of Hampton Court, giving
assistance to the French Huguenots.
Articles established the doctrines of the Church
1564, April 11--The
Peace of Troyes brought peace between England and
France. England renounced her claim to Calais, on
payment by the French of 222,000 crowns.
Hawkins introduced tobacco to England.
1567, July 24--Mary,
Queen of Scots, was driven out of Scotland. Her
son, James, was
proclaimed King of Scotland. Seeking Elizabeth's
help in restoring her to her kingdom, she was
English Catholic College of Douai was founded by
1569, November 9--The
Northern Rebellion broke out.
1570, February 20--The
Northern Rebellion was finally defeated.
1570, February 25--The Roman
Catholic Church excommunicated Elizabeth and
specifically released her subjects from their
allegiance to the Church of England.
Ridolfi Plot to assassinate Elizabeth.
1571, January 23--The Royal Exchange was
1572, January 16--Thomas
Howard, Duke of Norfolk, was tried for treason
for conspiracy in the Ridolfi Plot. On June 2, he
became the first nobleman of Elizabeth's reign to
be executed for treason.
Burbage opened the first theater in England,
simply called "The Theater."
1575, November 14--Elizabeth
refused the sovereignty of the Netherlands.
1577, December 13--Francis
Drake set out on the
first English voyage around the world.
1578, March 12--James
VI took over the reigns of government in
broke out in Ireland.
1580, June 5--A
proclamation to restrict the growth of London was
1580, September 26--Drake
entered Plymouth Harbor after having
circumnavigated the globe.
1582, August 22--James
VI was captured by the English while out hunting,
and imprisoned until June 1583.
Irish rebellion was defeated.
1583, December 20--John Somerville was
executed for a plot to assassinate Elizabeth.
of Association was formed, in which loyal
subjects of the Queen pledged allegiance to her
and promised to avenge her murder if it takes
Raleigh sailed to
1584--The Spanish Ambassador was
expelled from England.
1584, July 10--Francis Throgmorton was
executed for conspiracy for a Spanish invasion of
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, led an English
expedition to the Netherlands.
1585, June 7--Raleigh established the
first English colony in America, at Roanoke
1585, June 29--Elizabeth again refused
sovereignty of the Netherlands.
1585, August 14--Elizabeth
issued a declaration that she was taking the
Netherlands under her protection.
Treaty of Berwick was signed, forming a league of
amity between Elizabeth I and James VI.
1586, July 17--Francis
Walsingham revealed the Babington Plot to
assassinate Elizabeth and place Mary, Queen of
Scots, on the throne.
1586, September 20--Anthony
Babington and fellow conspirators were executed.
1586, October 11-14--Mary, Queen
of Scots, was tried for her supposed complicity
in the Babington Plot.
1587, February 8--Mary,
Queen of Scots, was executed at Fotheringay.
1587, April 19--The English
fleet defeated the Spanish Armada at Cadiz.
1588, August 8--King
Philip II of Spain sent the Spanish Armada
against England. It was summarily defeated by
1589, April 13--Sir
Francis Drake and Sir John Norris led a campaign
1591, November 20--Elizabeth
founded Trinity College.
1595, July 23--The
Spanish landed in Cornwall and burned Penzance
led an unsuccessful expedition against the
1597--A second Spanish Armada
was defeated by bad weather.
1598, August 14--Irish
forces defeated the English at the Yellow Ford on
the Blackwater River.
led an expedition to France.
1599--Essex was made Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland and sent there. He returned
without the Queen's consent and was imprisoned.
1600--The East India Company was established.
1600, August 5--James VI of
Scotland was seized by Lord Gowrie, but later
of 3,000 Spaniards arrive in Ireland to aid the
1601, January 7-8--Essex Revolt against
1601, February 19--Essex was
tried for treason. He was executed on February
Queen Elizabeth died at
Richmond Palace on March 24, 1603. Elizabeth
never married and thus bore no heirs. She was
succeeded by James VI of Scotland, who also
became James I of England.
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